Sunday, December 1, 2019

Mughal Empire Essay Example

Mughal Empire Essay Mughal Empire Name: Institution: Mughal Empire We will write a custom essay sample on Mughal Empire specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Mughal Empire specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Mughal Empire specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In the 1526, Babur founded the greatest and the last empire in the Indian history, the Mughal Empire. Mogul is an English word derived from Mughal, which means a hugely powerful person. Babur father and mother came from the Timur’s and Genghis Khan’s Kingdoms respectively. After conquering the Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Sha Lodi in 1526, he named his empire Timurid that is the Mughal Dynasty (John, 1995, p.8). This one empire left a significant impact in India. It was during this period that most the beautiful monuments were set up in India, for instance, the Taj Mahal, which is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The Mughal Empire lasted almost for three centuries, between 1526AD to 1857AD, in history; it is one of the largest centralized empires. This one empire had a considerable influence in ancient India and even in the post-India today. However, this empire was unable to last long, it come down after only three centuries. The Mughal Empire left a strong impression in the history of India. Their landmark achievements are still visible today. Among the most conspicuous achievements include, the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort in Delhi, the Humayan’s Tomb and the Fort of Agra. This empire was able to create the best-recognized monuments in the world. Through the Mughal’s, India came to the peak of beauty and refinement. In their works of fine arts, gardening, cuisine, and the emergence of the Urdu language, their work of making India recognized appears. During their reign, music and literature emerged was celebrated. For instance, the Sufi music was renowned by most Indians during that period. Despite all these great achievements, the empire was unable to stand the test of time. On 7 November 1862, the British threw the last emperor of the Mughal’s in prison in Burma just after the Indian rebellion of 1857. This was the end of a great dynasty in India. Aurangzeb is largely to blame for the decline of the Mughal Empire, unlike his predecessors; he did not struggle hard to win the loyalty of those he ruled. He never tolerated the non-Muslims; he ordered them, also take part in the celebrations and other Hindu activities. This made him lose the support and loyalty of the Rajputs (Keene, 2007, p.11). He killed Sikh Guru was not welcomed by the Marathas making them declare war against him. Those who succeeded Aurangzeb were extremely incompetent. They did nothing to protect the empire, but instead were more into pleasure and thus made them quickly become unable to rule the state. The rulers were unable to come up with a definite law for the people. This caused war amongst the emperor’s sons each time an emperor died. These created rooms for anarchy since each son used the noble members of the family to enable him ascend to the throne. The availability of luxuries and wealth caused laziness among the Mughal’s army. This made the m inefficient, ineffective and corrupt; this proved them disloyal to the commander making them loss battles. They often fought themselves for money and women. This also created room for the rise of new political powers like the Sikhs, Jats and Marathas. These new powers were annoyed by the rule of the Mughal’s, broke away to form their own states, weakening the empire. The coming of the British put an end to the Mughal’s empire. They greatly messed the politics of India and set up their own empire in India, the British Empire that lasted for 200 years. The constant wars had an adverse effect on the economic ability of the empire. In conclusion, the Mughal’s empire came down due to own making. References Richards, J. F., Johnson, G. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press. Keene, H. G. (2010). Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan. S.l.: General Books.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Religion in Russia

Religion in Russia Russia has experienced a revival of religion since the start of the new millennium. Over 70% of Russians consider themselves to be Orthodox Christians, and the number is growing. There are also 25 million Muslims, around 1.5 million Buddhists, and over 179,000 Jewish people. The Russian Orthodox Church has been particularly active in attracting new followers due to its image as the true Russian religion. But Christianity wasnt the first religion that Russians followed. Here are some main historical periods in the evolution of religion in Russia. Key Takeaways: Religion in Russia Over 70% of Russians consider themselves to be Russian Orthodox Christians.Russia was pagan until the tenth century, when it adopted Christianity as a way to have a united religion.Pagan beliefs have survived alongside Christianity.In Soviet Russia, all religion was banned.Since the 1990s, many Russians have rediscovered religion, including Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and Slavic Paganism.The 1997 law on religion has made it more difficult for less established religious groups in Russia to register, worship, or exercise the freedom of religious belief.The Russian Orthodox Church has a privileged position and gets to decide which other religions can be officially registered. Early Paganism Early Slavs were pagans and had a multitude of deities. Most of the information about the Slavic religion comes from the records made by Christians who brought Christianity to Russia, as well as from Russian folklore, but there is still a lot that we dont know about the early Slav paganism. Slavic gods often had several heads or faces. Perun was the most important deity and represented thunder, while Mother Earth was revered as the mother of all things. Veles, or Volos, was the god of abundance, since he was responsible for the cattle. Mokosh was a female deity and was associated with weaving. Early Slavs performed their rituals in the open nature, worshiping trees, rivers, stones, and everything around them. They saw the forest as a border between this world and the Underworld, which is reflected in many folktales where the hero has to cross the forest in order to achieve their goal. Establishment of the Russian Orthodox Church In the tenth century, Prince Vladimir The Great, the ruler of Kievan Rus, decided to unite his people and create an image of Kievan Rus as a strong, civilized country. Vladimir himself was an ardent pagan who erected wooden statues of deities, had five wives and around 800 concubines, and had a reputation of a bloodthirsty warrior. He also disliked Christianity because of his rival brother Yaropolk. However, Vladimir could see that uniting the country with one clear religion would be beneficial. The choice was between Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, and within it, Catholicism or Eastern Orthodox Church. Vladimir rejected Islam as he thought that it would pose too many restrictions on the freedom-loving Russian soul. Judaism was rejected because he believed that he could not adopt a religion that had not helped the Jewish people hold on to their own land. Catholicism was deemed too stern, and so Vladimir settled on Eastern Orthodox Christianity. In 988, during a military campaign in Byzantine, Vladimir demanded to marry Anna, sister of Byzantine emperors. They agreed, providing that he is baptized beforehand, which he agreed to. Anna and Vladimir married in a Christian ceremony, and upon his return to Kiev, Vladimir ordered the demolition of any pagan deity statues and a country-wide baptism of his citizens. The statues were chopped and burned or thrown into the river. With the advent of Christianity, paganism became an underground religion. There were several pagan uprisings, all violently squashed. The North-Eastern parts of the country, centered around Rostov, were particularly hostile to the new religion. The dislike of the clergy among the peasants can be seen in Russian folktales and mythology (byliny). Ultimately, most of the country continued with dual allegiance to both Christianity and, in everyday life, to paganism. This is reflected even now in the highly superstitious, ritual-loving Russian character. Religion in Communist Russia As soon as the Communist era began in 1917, the Soviet government made it its job to eradicate religion in the Soviet Union. Churches were demolished or turned into social clubs, the clergy was shot or sent to camps, and it became forbidden to teach religion to ones own children. The main target of the anti-religion campaign was the Russian Orthodox Church, as it had the most followers. During WWII, the Church experienced a short revival as Stalin looked for ways to increase the patriotic mood, but that quickly ended after the war. Russian Christmas, celebrated on the night of January 6, was no longer a public holiday, and many of its rituals and traditions moved to the New Years Eve, which even now remains the most loved and celebrated Russian holiday. While most main religions were not outlawed in the Soviet Union, the state promoted its policy of state atheism, which was taught at school and encouraged in academic writing. Islam was at first treated slightly better than Christianity, due to Bolsheviks view of it as a center of the reaction. However, that ended around 1929, and Islam experienced similar treatment as other religions, with mosques shut down or turned into warehouses. Judaism had a similar fate as Christianity in the Soviet Union, with the added persecution and discrimination, especially during Stalin. Hebrew was only taught in schools for diplomats, and most synagogues were closed under Stalin and then Khrushchev. Thousands of Buddhist monks were killed during the Soviet Union, too. In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, the more open environment of the Perestroika encouraged the opening of many Sunday schools and a general resurgence of interest in Orthodox Christianity. Religion in Russia Today The 1990s marked the beginning of a revival in religion in Russia. Christian cartoons were being shown on main TV channels, and new churches were built or old ones restored. However, it is on the cusp of the millennium that many Russians began associating the Russian Orthodox Church with the true Russian spirit. Paganism has also become popular again, after centuries of repression. Russians see in it an opportunity to connect with their Slavic roots and rebuild an identity different from the West. In 1997, a new law On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations was passed, which acknowledged Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism as traditional religions in Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church, which nowadays acts as a privileged religion of Russia, has the power to decide which other religions can be registered as official religions. This has meant that some religions, for example, Jehovahs Witnesses, are banned in Russia, while others, such as some Protestant churches or the Catholic Church, have considerable problems with registration, or limitations on their rights within the country. There have also been more restrictive laws adopted in some Russian regions, which means that the situation with the freedom of religious expression varies across Russia. Overall, any religions or religious organizations that are considered non-traditional according to the federal law, have experienced issues such as being unable to build or own places of worship, harassment from the authorities, violence, and denial of access to media time. Ultimately, the number of Russians who consider themselves to be Orthodox Christians is currently at over 70% of the population. At the same time, over a third of Orthodox Christian Russians do not believe in the existence of God. Only around 5% actually attend church regularly and follow the church calendar. Religion is a matter of national identity rather than faith for the majority of contemporary Russians.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Phrasal Verbs About Speaking for ESL Learners

Phrasal Verbs About Speaking for ESL Learners This phrasal verb feature focuses on phrasal verbs we use when talking about speaking and conversation. Obviously, using tell or say or speak, etc. is absolutely correct when relating conversations. However, if you want to stress HOW the person said something, phrasal verbs come in handy (idiombe useful). Phrasal Verbs About Speaking Negative Speaking go on: to continue to talk about a subject after the interest of the listener has been exhausted.harp on :Â  inf. to repeatedly talk about a certain subjectramble on: to talk for a long time about something which is not very interesting to the other people in the conversationrabbit on (British):Â  as aboverun on (American):Â  as above Speaking Quickly rattle off: to say a list or impressive number of facts very quicklyreel off inf.:Â  as abovewhip off inf. (American):Â  as above Interrupting butt in: to rudely enter another conversationchip in: to add a specific point to a conversation Speaking suddenly blurt out: to say something suddenly, usually without thinkingcome out with: to say something suddenly Contributing come up with: to add a new idea to a conversationto go along with: to agree with someone else Not Speaking shut up: to stop talking, often used as an imperative (very rude)break off: suddenly stop speakingclam up: to refuse to speak or become silent during a conversationdry up: run out of ideas of interesting comments, finish speaking because you dont know what to say next or have forgotten what you would like to say Speaking Rudely talk at: to talk to someone without listening to what they have to saytalk down to: to verbally treat someone in an inferior mannergo off: to speak angrily about somethingput down: to criticize someone or something Sample Paragraph WithPhrasal Verbs Last week I went to visit my friend Fred. Fred is a great guy but at times he can really go on about things. We were speaking about some of our friends and he came out with this incredible story about Jane. It seems she had butted in while he was harping on his favorite complaint: Service in restaurants. Apparently, he had been running on for quite a while putting down almost every restaurant he had been to by rattling off a list of his visits to different restaurants in town. I guess Jane felt that he was talking at her and was fed up with it. She went off about what a rude person he was which shut him up pretty quickly! I thought about blurting out that maybe she was right, but decided to clam up in order to not upset him.As you can see by using these phrasal verbs the reader gets a much better idea of the dynamics of the conversation. If the above story was reported by saying she told him, he said etc., it would be pretty boring indeed. In this way, the reader gets a real sense of the personalities of the speakers.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Factors Influencing Internationalization and Entrepreneurial Growth of Research Paper

Factors Influencing Internationalization and Entrepreneurial Growth of Family-Owned Businesses - Research Paper Example firms; Generational Involvement is associated with the level of Entrepreneurial indication in family firms; and, Entrepreneurial Orientation is positively related to the internationalization of family firms. Internationalization is the â€Å"process by which firms both increase their awareness of the direct and indirect influence of international transactions on their future, and establish and conduct transactions with firms in other countries† (Koh, 2010, p.22). As 80% of businesses in US are family owned, it is responsible for 60% of employment. Although a lot of these firms are small in size, still they represent around one-third of Fortune 500 Companies and around thirty five percent of the S&P 500 Industrials. (Blodgett et al, 2012) In most companies around the globe, internationalization is an important challenge which they need to address to make sure they remain competitive in today’s Global Economy. An entry into foreign soil is marked with uncertainty which may require breaking away from traditional and long used manufacturing processes, acquiring new channel partners and exploring avenues for funding. However, internationalization can be more even more challengi ng in family owned businesses, because the entry into foreign markets may require structural changes within the organization and most of these firms are extremely unwilling to lose family control. (Casillas et al, 2013). While family businesses aim for expansion, with exploring new markets, they are faced with the opposite force which is stability in their home market, which is relatively low-risk. (Casillas et al, 2013). Studies that have researched into the want of internationalization of family firms reveal an inclination toward family firms wanting to operate in the traditional markets and seem reluctant to venture into foreign territory. (Koh, 2010). This is not to say that NO family firms have surmounted this challenge, quite a few family firms have ventured into international markets and

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Feasibility of hotel to implement changes in strategy Speech or Presentation

Feasibility of hotel to implement changes in strategy - Speech or Presentation Example A British scientist Charles Darwin wrote that survival does not belong to the strongest, but rather those that adapt more easily to change. For change in strategy to be implemented a feasibility study has to be taken. Change in strategy at hotel Penang Mutiara is visible due to these factors; The flexibility of the management is possible because this can be attested to the fact that the hotel can cope up with unexpected requests by customers this is evident from the fact that a hotel can have someone look for camembert cheese when asked by a guest since they don’t have it.This assures the guests of dependable services and satisfaction. (Gregory, G.,Lumpkin,G.&Marilyn,L04).The strategy of the hotel to cope with influx of guests is feasible because the hotel has already moved to a system of having multi-skilled works to cope up with the needs the hotel has proved this also by having them call stuff from other hotels and restaurants to the do the job.This is the flexibility that is needed for the management to work effectively and efficiently. This proves that the hotel can have a better system which is more effective by having a on and off system of hiring labour and retraining the current workers to be multi-skilled or rehiring multi-skilled workers.Changes to make sure Quality of services are there is necessary to be in place; in the case for this hotel the guest can lose their luggage on transit to the hotel.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The History of East Timor Essay Example for Free

The History of East Timor Essay Timor is an island on the eastern side of the Indonesian archipelago and to the northwest of Australia. West Timor was a part of Indonesia and East Timor was a Portuguese controlled colony. East Timor was taken under the control of the Portuguese in the 1600s. They were in control until 1975. During 1942 the Japanese invaded East Timor whilst fighting the Australian troops. Around 60,000 East Timorese were killed for protecting the Australian troops. The Japanese were in control of East Timor until 1945. In 1975 on the 28th of November, the Fretilin declared East Timor as independent. On the 5th of December that year the Indonesian forces invaded East Timor; claiming it as a province. The U. N. did not officially recognise the move by the Indonesians. The East Timorese tried to resist the Indonesian invasion, all attempts failed. While the invasion was happening 200,000 East Timorese died. The political climate in 1975 The fear of communism had spread throughout Asia at the Vietnam War. Many countries were afraid of it and the Indonesians accused the East Timorese of trying to become communist. The Indonesian military used this as a scare tactic for the rest of the world. They claimed that they were only trying to keep East Timor under control. But really they just didn’t want them to become independent. The Australian government knew of the invasion but did nothing to help the East Timorese people. The Hawke government didn’t want to risk Indonesia making us enemies. At the time, the Indonesian government had military, political and economic support from countries such as the UK, USA and Australia. It is to be believed that these countries did not aid the East Timorese from the invasion for various reasons, such as the Timor gap, trading and cheap labour interests. The impact of the invasion in 1975 and the future repercussions The invasion of the Indonesians left peoples homes destroyed, their family’s dead and their lives uprooted. Many refugees left East Timor in search of a peaceful new home. In August 1999, the 99% of the people of East Timor voted in a U. N referendum. Four days after the referendum the tally showed that 78% of the East Timorese voted for independence. A militia leader said it bluntly, Peace? Why would we want peace? If the vote is for independence well just kill—kill everybody. Within one week the Indonesian military-backed militia started a terror campaign. Women, children, but mostly men, boys, the educated, nuns, and priests were murdered. The Indonesian government was trying to make it so that East Timor didn’t have any educated people left. The capital, Dili, was set alight as people fled. Homes, churches and even the United Nations compound were attacked. Many refugees left for other Indonesian islands. The only safe places for the East Timorese were the four cantonments in the mountains that were held by the East Timorese armed resistance. At some points in time there were said to be 200,000 to 300,000 refugees with up to 600,000 people displaced. The role of significant individuals Jose Ramos-Horta: Jose Ramos-Horta was born and raised in East Timor. In 1969 he worked as a journalist and in 1974 he was exiled to Mozambique after his attempts to make East Timor independent anger the colonial administration. When Jose Ramos-Horta returned to East Timor he joined the Fretilin in 1974. In October 1975, Jose Ramos-Horta took the group of five journalists to the town Balibo so they can film the Indonesian attack. He left the town only hours before the five men were killed. On the 28th of November that year Jose Ramos-Horta was appointed as the Fretilin’s minister of communications and external affairs. Ramos-Horta had left just days before Indonesia invaded on the 7th of December. He was in New York representing East Timor to the UN Security Council. He successfully made a pass on the resolution demanding that Indonesia withdraw. But Indonesia ignored the UN. From 1977 until 1985 Jose Ramos-Horta became the representative of the Fretilin at the UN. Jose spoke to many different councils, committees and commissions about the human rights violations by the Indonesian military. He had a peace plan that would end all the violence in his country. During his time in exile, he was trained in human rights law in Australia. In February 1996 Jose was awarded the first UMPO prize, Unrepresented National and Peoples Organisation, for his â€Å"unswerving commitment to the rights of and freedoms of threatened people† later on it that year Jose Ramos-Horta and Bishop Carlos Belo were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In 2006 Jose Ramos-Horta take a place in the government as caretaker prime minister after many hiccups with the previous government. In 2007 he stepped down from his position while the East Timor’s first presidential election was taking place. Jose won the election with 70% of the vote. Jose Ramos-Horta was shot by rebel soldiers in 2008 and was flown to Australia. He returned to East Timor 2 months later. He continued on as president until the 20th of May 2012. If those in power, wherever we are, whichever country but also at whatever level in society that we are leaders, began working together—we would eliminate abject poverty and ensure that poverty becomes history in twenty years from now. It’s a moral duty of any of us as human beings. † The Balibo 5: In October 1975 five Australian journalists -Greg Shackleton, Tony Stewart, Brian Peters, Malcolm Rennie and Gary Cunningham- landed in East Timor. They travelled through East Timor filming the areas that they passed to show to the world. They were heading to a town called Balibo to film the Indonesian war ships of the coast of East Timor. Indonesian forces killed the five men in Balibo. We don’t know how they were killed but many believe they were burnt along with the footage they had taken on their journey so far. The journalists were reported as missing on the 16th of October. On The 12th of November Indonesian officials, whom handed their remains to the Australian Embassy in Jakarta, confirmed their deaths. These men were important because they were trying to show the world what was really happening in East Timor, not the lies that the Indonesian government were making up.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Ghosts of The Woman Warrior Essay -- Maxine Hong Kingston Woman Wa

The Ghosts of The Woman Warrior In Maxine Hong Kingston's novel, The Woman Warrior, Kingston touches upon several aspects of life common to all. Her experiences as a child were illustrated through this book. People not of the Chinese culture were seen as ghosts in this child's world. The similarities between Kingston's childhood, and the reader's help make this novel universally readable. The images created by Kinston, and the parallels between her life and others justify the creation of The Woman Warrior. When writing an autobiography, it is the goal of the author to point out the lessons of her life to others. While the lessons expressed are not always unique, each has its purpose. Parent child differences are common; caused by changing times and beliefs. Kingston not only had to deal with the generation gap, but she had to deal with the dissimilar Chinese and American mindset and traditions. Kingston often explained in detail how her mother acts in certain situations. Maxine often felt embarrassed by her mom; when they received a wrong prescription, her mother wanted retribution from the pharmacist. It would be complex for Maxine to explain the situation to the store clerk, who would not understand. As a child such a situation is confusing, explaining to mom will not help, she is not American. Those who have not encountered a similar situation can still correlate the predicament the one's experiences. Telling stories is a tradition of many cultures. Parents tell of a mystical event, or sometimes of a person. Knowing the history of one's ancestors is important. As a whole, people are always making mistakes; to correct them the error must be remembered so that the same act is not repeated. "S... ...haman who would only treat those who were not dying. This was her way of making herself appear a better doctor. No one would want to be treated by a physician whose patients died. Maxine's mother is also reluctant to show her Medical diploma from China. She said, "The sweat of hard work is not to be displayed. It is much more graceful to appear favored by the gods."(??) Modesty is an attribute to one's personality, an especially important one in Chinese culture. Kingston recalls several events during her childhood in Stockton, during The Woman Warrior. No matter where one is from, one's parent child relations have similarities to those told in this novel. In every life there are people considered outsiders, those outsiders are ghosts to certain people. The biographical events on which this book is based provide a universal foundation for Kingston's novel. The Ghosts of The Woman Warrior Essay -- Maxine Hong Kingston Woman Wa The Ghosts of The Woman Warrior In Maxine Hong Kingston's novel, The Woman Warrior, Kingston touches upon several aspects of life common to all. Her experiences as a child were illustrated through this book. People not of the Chinese culture were seen as ghosts in this child's world. The similarities between Kingston's childhood, and the reader's help make this novel universally readable. The images created by Kinston, and the parallels between her life and others justify the creation of The Woman Warrior. When writing an autobiography, it is the goal of the author to point out the lessons of her life to others. While the lessons expressed are not always unique, each has its purpose. Parent child differences are common; caused by changing times and beliefs. Kingston not only had to deal with the generation gap, but she had to deal with the dissimilar Chinese and American mindset and traditions. Kingston often explained in detail how her mother acts in certain situations. Maxine often felt embarrassed by her mom; when they received a wrong prescription, her mother wanted retribution from the pharmacist. It would be complex for Maxine to explain the situation to the store clerk, who would not understand. As a child such a situation is confusing, explaining to mom will not help, she is not American. Those who have not encountered a similar situation can still correlate the predicament the one's experiences. Telling stories is a tradition of many cultures. Parents tell of a mystical event, or sometimes of a person. Knowing the history of one's ancestors is important. As a whole, people are always making mistakes; to correct them the error must be remembered so that the same act is not repeated. "S... ...haman who would only treat those who were not dying. This was her way of making herself appear a better doctor. No one would want to be treated by a physician whose patients died. Maxine's mother is also reluctant to show her Medical diploma from China. She said, "The sweat of hard work is not to be displayed. It is much more graceful to appear favored by the gods."(??) Modesty is an attribute to one's personality, an especially important one in Chinese culture. Kingston recalls several events during her childhood in Stockton, during The Woman Warrior. No matter where one is from, one's parent child relations have similarities to those told in this novel. In every life there are people considered outsiders, those outsiders are ghosts to certain people. The biographical events on which this book is based provide a universal foundation for Kingston's novel.